Park Guell | An Abode of Nature and Biodiversity
Are you a nature enthusiast who loves everything green? If yes, we know a place that will feel like paradise to you. With its heart-capturing nature and biodiversity, Park Guell is among the most iconic places in Barcelona. Eusebi Guell commissioned it; he wanted to build an estate for the aristocratic families of Barcelona. This park is now on the list of UNESCO world heritage sites.
The lizard staircase and Nature Square are the biggest attractions of the park. You will witness marvelous architecture and beautiful mosaics in this iconic spot of Barcelona.
Going through the pathways of the garden will enthrall your heart and fill your soul with serenity. Read further to know about Park Guell and its unparalleled nature and biodiversity.
Where Is Park Guell Located?
Park Guell | Urban Green Corridor
The range of hills in the region- Creueta del Coll (Creueta del Coll Park), El Carmel (Park Güell and Carmel Park), and La Rovira (Guinardó Park) together comprise Barcelona's one of the most enormous green regions that had generally been considered one geological unit: the Tres Turons Park. Tres Turons Park is the most extensive natural area of Barcelona.
It is very significant for the city from an ecological perspective. This park plays a significant role in maintaining the ecological balance of the place. This park is also a natural habitat for many birds due to its proximity to the Collserola mountain range. This is also a safe space for some animals.
Parks and green areas are crucial to sustaining biodiversity in any room. These areas allow free movement of animal species and provide them space to reproduce and inhabit. The lack of such spaces can affect the biodiversity of such an area.
That's why creating green corridors around the city, which connect green areas to the closest natural system like hills or forests, is suggested by environmentalists. The Tres Turons Park is a part of the Ciutadella-Collserola green corridor, which is yet to be completed.
Natural Environment Of Park Guell
The place where now Park Güell is situated was known as the Muntanya Pelada [Bare Mountain]. The area was a farming land with vineyards, olive groves, and fruit orchards for an extended period.
It was a dry-farming land, the soil was very shallow, and there was a lack of water resources. The park region in proximity to El Carmel hill still has some plots reserved for cultivation. Made many changes to the park after the city council purchased it.
During the 1960s, various Aleppo pines and bushes impervious to dry conditions were planted in the mountain region, giving this green space its present lush, semi-forested appearance.
Notwithstanding, these pines were planted in similar spots as numerous olive and carob trees, which were somewhat gagged out. The natural environment of Park Guell gives you inner peace. The towering trees create a picturesque landscape in this area.
Biodiversity Of Park Guell
Being a part of the Tres Turons Park area, Park Guell forms an urban nature reserve in Barcelona. Careful plantation and the availability of a large green area make this park rich with biodiversity.
Park Guell is spread over 17 hectares, accessible to everyone, and creates a zone of natural value and diversity of species that make them very attractive for visitors. That's why along with cultural tourism, visitors are assured of scenic natural tourism on their visit. The park has a lot of olive trees, both old and new.
Due to its proximity to Collserola hills and other green areas, this park attracts a wide range of fauna. Animals can find shelter, food, and a place to reproduce and live in this area. Some structures around the Park area have been built keeping in mind the presence of some species.
With its wide assortment of greenery that will leave you in awe, this place has a lot to offer for animal lovers.
Park Guell's Biodiversity Route
Various flora species have been planted in the garden, including Mediterranean shrubs like strawberry trees, Common hawthorn, mastic trees, laurustinus, chaste trees, and red valerian trees.
There is a particular pathway that collects runoff water from the mountains and goes into the drainage system. This doesn't let the water collect at one place and avoids situations of waterlogging during heavy rains.
The Austria Gardens
Formerly a nursery, this section gets its name from a donation of trees by the Austrian government in 1977. The Austrian ambassador started the operation for twinning Austria with Barcelona. On this premise, they traded trees for a long time. Many of the trees couldn't survive, as they were high-altitude trees that couldn't adjust to the Mediterranean environment. In 2012, the lawns were eliminated and supplanted by plants with different blossoming periods, fragrant plants, etc., to commemorate the nursery.
A "Hotel" For Insects
Popularly known as an insect hotel, this is a safe spot for bees and insects to make their nests. Insects play a vital role in any ecosystem. They pollinate plants and control harmful pests that spread diseases. It isn't easy to find places to nest in cities. Parks and gardens are generally the best places for insects
The woodland area is known as Vallcarca Wood. It has qualities of natural Mediterranean woodland. This woodland includes stone -pines and Aleppo pines. You can also find common hawthorn and oak trees in this place due to good humidity.
Species That You Can Find In Park Guell
- Moorish gecko (Tarentola mauritanica)
- Mediterranean house gecko (Hemydactylus turcicus)
- Iberian wall lizard (Podarcis linoleic)
- Soprano pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pygmaeus)
- Common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus)
- Kuhl's pipistrelle vores clares (Pipistrellus kuhlii)
- Serotine bat graners (Eptesicus serotinus)
- Brown rat (Rattus norvegicus)
- House mouse (Mus domesticus)
- Rock dove (Columba livia)
- Eurasian hoopoe (Upupa epops)
- Eurasian wryneck (Jynx torquilla)
- European robin (Erithacus rubecula)
- Nightingale (Luscinia megarhynchos)
- Common blackbird (Turdus merula)
- Melodious warbler (Hippolais polyglotta)
- Sardinian Warbler (Sylvia melanocephala)
- Eurasian blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla)
- Common chiffchaff (Phylloscopus collybita)
- Common firecrest (Regulus ignicapilla)
- The spotted flycatcher (Muscicapa striata)
- Long-tailed tit (Aegithalos caudatus)
- European crested tit (Lophophanes cristatus)
- Coal tit (Periparus ater)
- Eurasian blue tit (Certhia brachydactyla)
- Vegetation Acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia)
- False olive (Rhamnus alaternus)
- Chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus)
- Holm oak (Quercus ilex)
- Almond tree (Prunus dulcis)
- Strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo)
- Common hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna)
- American aloe (Agave americana)
- Himalayan cedar (Cedrus deodara)
- Wild cherry tree (Prunus avium)
- Mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb)
- Scarlet oak (Quercus coccifera)
- Carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua)
- Kiss-me-quick (Centranthus ruber)
- Mastic tree (Pistacia lentiscus)
- Sweet bay (Laurus nobilis)
- Magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora)
- Laurustinus (Viburnum tinus)
- European Fan Palm (Chamaerops humilis)
- Mimosa (Acacia dealbata)
- The olive tree (Olea europaea)
- Canary Island date palm (Phoenix canariensis)
- Chinese windmill palm (Trachycarpus fortunei)
- Stone pine (Pinus pinea)
- Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis)
- Pittosporum (Pittosporum tobira)
- Basket stinkhorn (Clathrus ruber (seta))
- Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)
- Oak (Quercus cerrioides, Quercus pubescens)
- Elder (Sambucus nigra)
- Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens)
- Monterey cypress (Cupressus macrocarpa)
To preserve the garden and maintain the ecological systems of the landscape, Barcelona City Council practices a system of ecological gardening in Park Guell. This includes pruning trees and cleaning their dried leaves from time to time. Lawns are a bit trickier to manage as they need lots of moisture.
Species that can sustain in drought situations are given preference. Shrubs and borders also need to be pruned. Flowers are usually seasonal, and they need to be replanted every year. Dried flowers are also removed on a timely basis.